Hisar as clear from its name, which means fort simultaneously in three major languages such Turkish, Arabic and Urdu, is air defense missile system developed and manufactured by Turkish defense giants Aselsan and Roketsan.
Aselsan was responsible for design and development of Electronic Systems such as Fire Control System and Radar (FCS/FCR), Command and Control, Missile Launching System (MLVs), Optics and Data Link. Roketsan was tasked with developing and supplying Intercept Missile.
Development of the Hisar system was started in 2007 and testing began in 2013 and successfully completed in 2019. It has two variants.
- Hisar-A Short-Range Low Altitude Air Defense Missile System.
- Hisar-O Medium Altitude Air Defense Missile System.
Let us discuss both briefly.
Hisar-A Short-Range Low Altitude Air Defense Missile System
▪ Hisar A is Short Range Low Altitude Air Defense missile system capable engaging airborne targets such as Aircraft, Helicopters, UAVs, and Cruise missiles.
▪ Max Range: 15 KM.
▪ Min Range: 2 KM.
▪ MAX Altitude: 5 KM.
▪ Min Altitude: 30 meters.
▪ Hisar A system is mounted on FNSS ACV-30 self-propelled tracked chassis. It is crewed by three persons and max speed 65KM/hrs and range of 500 KM. It provides STANAG Level 4 Protection. Standard equipment also comprises of NRBC (Nuclear, Radiological, Biological, Chemical) Protection system, 8 smoke grenade discharges and Night Vision Goggles.
Radar and Command and Control
▪ Hisar A is equipped with Variety of Search radar launch platforms and Fire control system. Initially it was reported to be operating 3D X-Band KALKAN II radar, which can detect hostile targets at 120KM and Track up to 60 Targets, it also has the capability to localize jamming direction from hostile EW Platforms. It has ability to Track, identify, label, and prioritize threat, asking with assistance of Mode 5 IFF system.
In July 2017, another 3D search radar named MAR by Aselsan was successfully tested on it. Hisar A have both MAR or KALKAN on its top of hull of ACV-30 horizontally and in combat time is erected vertically.
▪ it also features an unknown IIR/Electro optical system and hence makes it survivable in RF jamming and still operational against low flying targets. In 23 Nov to 8 Oct 2018 tests, included verification of IR seeker and Electro Optical operational capabilities.
▪ Hisar A have state of the art Radio Frequency Data Link system, tested successfully on 23 Nov to 8 Oct series of tests, in which Hisar A missile was successfully retargeted to another target, after reaching first target determined position.
▪ Roketsan is supplier of “Hisar A” interceptor missiles. It is launched from both fixed Slant position or MLS vertically from ACV-30, in unique way missiles from roof of hull laying horizontally are opened sideways vertically and are then fired.
Interceptor missiles are propelled by dual pulse sold fuel rocket motor with TVC exhaust. It has high-Blast Fragmentation warhead and Proximity fuse. It also has IIR seeker which activates in terminal phase to detect and hit target with more speed utilizing second pulse of solid propellants.
Conclusion: Hisar A with upper discussed feature is very flexible and reliable air defense system, which can act as stand-alone short range SAM and in coordination with Kurkut FCR in a battery.
It completed successfully test trials in 2019 and is slotted for serial production, first unit is expected to be enter in service in 2020 soon. In recent it has also been heard that it is operational in key Turkish bases Syria as part of Operation Spring Shield.
Hisar-O Medium Altitude Air Defense Missile System
Hisar O is low to Medium Altitude system of Hisar family with more extended range. It also recently completed its trial in 2019 and is expected to enter in Turkish Forces soon.
▪ Max range: 25 KM
▪ Min range: 5 KM
▪ Max Altitude: 5 KM
▪ Min Altitude: 50 Meters
▪ Hisar O is based on Mercedes Benz Zetros 6*6 chassis, it has speed of 90KM/hrs and range of 800 KM. It has 6 ready to fire missiles in both slanted and Vertical state in 2 rows of three. It features a quick reloading system as well.
▪ Hisar O unlike Hisar A operates in Battery, and single Battery Includes 3 Launching Vehicles, 1 Fire Control Radar, Command and Control Radar, Data-Link Center and Electro Optical Unit.
Radar and Command and Control
▪ Hisar A was stated to be operating MAR 3D X-Band search radar developed by AESLAN, though there are no further details available about range, target detection and tracking etc., but it seems like to be on par with KALKAN in Hisar A.
▪ Apart of Radar it relies on three more units, which are Command and Control, Fire Control Radar, Data-link Center and Electro Optical unit. More detail information about mentioned systems are not revealed till yet.
▪ Missiles features of Hisar O remains same as of Hisar A such as Dual Pulse rocket motor, TVC, Proximity fuse, IIR seeker, Datalink etc. It surely differs in size and launch platform, but regarding size no actual information have appeared till now. It is launched from Mercedes Zetros, from rear in both vertical and slanted position and 3 missiles in each 2 rows. In first half of October 2019 it completed series of tests, including MLV vertical launch and engaging 2 Bansheep90 jet flying at 600Km/hrs successfully detonating warhead.
Conclusion: Hisar O is Low-to-Medium range SAM system, with Hisar A able to defend strategic locations from variety of Aerial threats effectively. It operates in Battery configuration with 3 launchers with 6 missiles read to fire in each.
Another long-range system of Hisar family is also in development and we may see its induction in 2023.