Note: This article takes a comprehensive look at the capabilities of various drones that Pakistan’s Armed forces have acquired from Turkey
TAI Anka is a class of MALE (medium altitude long endurance) Turkish drones developed by Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) in collaboration with multiple local subcontractors. The development plans for Anka started in the early 2000s. Its earlier variant (Anka A) was primarily designed for reconnaissance and surveillance missions. Later its combat versions were introduced.
Anka-S is the serial production variant of the Anka family. The Anka-S drone possesses both day and night attack capability and can also be used for reconnaissance and surveillance missions. It has a SATCOM antenna and a national flight control computer. The drone carries a payload of a maximum of 350kg with a maximum take-off weight of 1700kg. The drone has a length of 28 ft. 3 inches, a wingspan of 57 ft. 5 inches and a height of 10 ft. 8 inches. It is powered by a 4-cylinder liquid-cooled in-line turbo-charged diesel engine (TEI-PD170) produced by Turkey’s Tusaş Engine Industries, the engine produces 127 kW (170 hp). It features a 3-bladed constant-speed propeller. The drone has a maximum speed of 217 km/h, a cruise speed of 204 km/h with a range of 1,448 km and a combat range of 250 km. It has a flight endurance of 30 hours with a 350 kg payload. The maximum service ceiling is 30,000 ft.
The drone is able to carry MAM (Smart Micro Munition), Roketsan Cirit 70 mm missiles, Tubitak-Sage Bozok Laser Guided Rockets and L-UMTAS (Long Range Anti-Tank Missiles)
Turkey and Pakistan join hands on Anka’s development
On 21st August 2021, Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) and Pakistan’s National Engineering and Science Commission (NESCOM) signed a contract/ Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to jointly produce Anka military drones and their components. According to the MoU, now TAI and NESCOM will be jointly responsible for resource and technology transfer within the scope of the agreement that was inked to expand the markets for Turkish drones and also to increase its capabilities in future developments.
TAI CEO Temel Kotil stated,
“The contract we made with Pakistan within the scope of our Anka UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) systems will provide significant gains to the UAV industry.”
“We will implement the human resources cooperation we have made in the past years in this contract as well. Besides, we will develop production and especially technological developments together.”
The Baykar Bayraktar TB2 is a MALE (medium altitude long endurance), armed Turkish drone capable of conducting surveillance, intelligence, reconnaissance and armed attack missions. The drone made its maiden flight in August 2014. It is the most successful drone of Turkish origin that performed very well in the Azerbaijan-Armenia war 2020 and gained global attention. Turkey has also used this drone extensively in Syria and Libya. To date, TB2 has completed more than 400,000 flight hours.
TB2 is configured with 6 aerial vehicle platforms, three ground data terminals (GDT), two ground control stations, two remote video terminals (RVT) and ground support equipment. Each aerial platform is equipped with a triply redundant avionics system. It features fully automatic flight control and 3 redundant autopilot system (Triple Redundant), also it is capable of automatic landing and take-off without dependence on ground systems. It features navigation with Internal Sensor Fusion without dependency on GPS.
The drone carries a payload of a maximum of 150kg with a maximum take-off weight of 700kg. The drone has a length of 21 ft. 4 inches and a wingspan of 39 ft. 4 inches. It is powered by a 105-hp Rotax 912-iS internal combustion injection engine and has 2-bladed variable-pitch propellers. It has a fuel capacity of 300 liters. The drone has a maximum speed of 220 km/h, a cruise speed of 130 km/h with a range of 4000km and a communication range of less than 300 km. It has a flight endurance of 27 hours. The maximum service ceiling is 25,000 ft.
The drone has 4 hardpoints which can carry MAM-C and MAM-L guided bombs, L-UMTAS (Long Range Anti-Tank Missile System), Roketsan Cirit (70 mm Missile System), TUBITAK-SAGE BOZOK Laser Guided Rockets, TUBITAK-SAGE TOGAN [quad rack of GPS/INS guided 81 mm mortars], Advanced Precision Kill Weapon System [70mm laser-guided rocket] (proposed).
Bayraktar Akinci is a HALE (High-Altitude Long-Endurance) Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV)/Drone being manufactured by the Turkish company Baykar. The UCAV is equipped with dual artificial intelligence avionics which supports signal processing, sensor fusion and situational awareness in real-time. According to Baykar, Bayraktar Akinci is capable of conducting operations that are performed with fighter jets. It carries electronic support systems, dual satellite communication systems, air-to-air radar, collision avoidance radar and synthetic aperture radar. It can also be used in air-to-ground and air-to-air attack missions. The drone is equipped with an indigenously manufactured active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, a SAR/GMTI radar and a surveillance system. It features dual redundant SATCOM plus dual redundant LOS. Furthermore, it features fully automatic flight control and 3 redundant autopilot system (Triple Redundant). Like TB2 it is also capable of automatic landing and take-off without dependence on ground systems. It features navigation with internal sensor fusion without dependency on GPS.
Its advanced features include:
- Fully Automatic Navigation and Route Tracking Feature
- Precise Auto Takeoff and Landing with Built-in Sensor Fusion
- Fully Automatic Taxi and Parking Features
- Semi-Autonomous Flight Modes Support
- Fault Tolerant and 3 Redundant Sensor Fusion Application
- Cross Redundant YKI System
- Unique Redundant Servo Actuator Units
- Unique Redundant Lithium-Based Battery Units
The drone carries a payload of a maximum of 1500kg with a maximum take-off weight of 6000kg. The drone has a length of 40 ft., and a wingspan of 65 ft. 7 inches and a height of 13 ft. 5 inches. It is powered by 2 Ukrainian turboprop engines, which produce 560 kW (750 hp) each. It features a 5-bladed composite constant-speed propeller. The drone has a maximum speed of 361 km/h, and a cruise speed of 240 km/h with a range of 7,500 km. It has a flight endurance of 24 hours. The maximum service ceiling is 45,000 ft. and the drone has an operational altitude of 30,000-40,000 ft. The drone has 8 hardpoints that can carry a wide range of weapons.
- L-UMTAS ASM
- Gökdoğan BVR AAM
- Bozdoğan AAM
- Akdoğan AAM
- Gökhan AAM
- SOM ALCM
- TUBITAK-SAGE BOZOK Laser Guided Rockets
- TUBITAK-SAGE KUZGUN-TJ/KY/ER/EW
- AKBABA (AtS) & (ARM)
- ROKETSAN ÇAKIR Missile Family
- ÇAKIR LIR/SW
- Teber-81 (Mark 81 bomb w/ ROKETSAN Laser Guidance Kit)
- HGK-82 (Mark 82 bomb w/ TUBITAK-SAGE Precision Guidance Kit)
- KGK-82 (Mark 82 bomb w/ TUBITAK-SAGE Wing Assisted Guidance Kit)
- Teber-82 (Mark 82 bomb w/ ROKETSAN Laser Guidance Kit)
- HGK-83 (Mark 83 bomb w/ TUBITAK-SAGE Precision Guidance Kit
- KGK-83 (Mark 83 bomb w/ TUBITAK-SAGE Wing Assisted Guidance Kit)
- HGK-84 (Mark 84 bomb w/ TUBITAK-SAGE Precision Guidance Kit)
- LHGK-84 (Mark 84 bomb w/ TUBITAK-SAGE Laser Sensitive Guidance Kit)
- TUBITAK-SAGE TOGAN Rack of four 81 mm mortars (GPS/INS or unguided)
- TUBITAK-SAGE KUZGUN-SS Glide bomb
- Aselsan Miniature Bomb (MB)
- SARB-83 Bunker buster
- NEB-84 Bunker buster