The Bayraktar is a surveillance and reconnaissance unmanned aerial vehicle initially developed for the Turkish Armed Forces. It was developed by the Kale-Baykar, a joint venture between the Kale Group and Baykar Technologies. In 2007, the Turkey initiated a development program and invited two companies to compete for a prototype demonstration phase of Tactical UAV Program. Bayraktar demonstrated its prototype which had autonomous take off and lading capability as well as dual redundancy to facilitate and increase the rapid re-deployment in case of any damage due to its dual redundancy. While the development of the Bayraktar TB2 started when US put a ban on exports of UAV/UCAVs to Turkey due to their possible use against Kurds of PKK groups in south eastern Turkey. On 17 December 2015, a missile system of Bayraktar TB2 UCAV was successfully tested when long-range anti-tank missile of Rocketsan called UMTAS was fired from it. Two UMTAS missiles each weighing 37.5 kg were mounted to both wings of Bayraktar TB2 UCAV. The 2x2m target panel was hit from 8 km away from 16000 feet (5000m) altitude with 100% accuracy, that day Turkey Became 6th country in the world to test fire a missile from a UCAV. The laser guided UMTAS missile has diameter: 160 mm; target range: min 500 m, max 8 km. It was fired from an ammunition operator of the drone in the ground pilot station.
Bayraktar has a blended wing body design with its inverse V-Tail structure. It enhances the lifting capability of the drone as well as overall performance of the drone. It is powered by a combustion engine which is placed between the tail booms of the drone. As it has dual redundancy, thus it is a very modular design with detachable body components such as wing, tail boom, and V-Tails. Its main fuselage is composed of carbon composites fiber materials as well as aluminum skeleton which holds all the joints. On the rear, it has two blade propellers with variable pitch control which is indeed a very good addition to the drone, as far as fuel tank is concerned, it is stored inside the main fuselage with automatic control of consumption balanced with solenoids.
Ground Control Station is based on a NATO spec shelter unit which is equipped with cross redundant command and control systems. The mobile unit supports for three personnel pilot, payload operator and mission commander. GCS is equipped with redundant Air Conditioners and NBC filtering unit. All hardware inside the shelter is placed inside racked cabinets. Each operator has dual screens in front along with the Operator Interface Software used for real-time command, control, and monitoring.
Each Tactical UAS is configured with six aerial vehicle platforms, two Ground Control Stations (GCS), three Ground Data Terminals (GDT), two Remote Video Terminals (RVT) and Ground Support Equipment. Each Aerial Platform is equipped with a triply redundant avionics system. Its ground control system’s cross redundant architecture allows for pilot, payload operator and mission commander to command, control and monitor the platform.
Digital Flight Control System
Bayraktar has a triple-redundant flight control system with which it can taxi, take off, adjust cruise speed, land, and park itself without any external sensor aid. This requires a precise programming along with the data fusion to the Algorithm Processor, this feature is absent in many drones and makes Bayraktar unique of its class. The servo components are specifically designed as for the Bayraktar platform itself rather than adjusting the drone as per the control systems. Servos are basically rotatory components which perform action in a controlled manner, thus providing very precise rotatory motion to control the drone i.e Landing gear, Pitch yaw & Roll controllers can be actuated with precise servo motions. The electric power unit comprises Li-ion batteries which are smartly balances, all electric components are powered with it. It also has triple alternator which increases efficiency of power consumption by converting DC to AC current. The main sensor Camera is placed in the far end of fuselage while missiles on drone wings. All Flight data is recorded as well. The Bayraktar can also do emergency land on a rough strip. Even if its GPS is low on signals, it can make its way home.
- Length: 6.5 m.
- Wingspan: 12 m.
- Max Take Off Weight: 650 kg.
- Powerplant: 1 x Rotax 912 Internal Combustion Engine with charge Injection, 100 Hp.
- Fuel Capacity: 300 litres.
- Fuel Type: Gasoline.
- Maximum Speed: 220 km/h.
- Cruise Speed: 130 km/h.
- Communication Range: 300 km.
- Service Ceiling: 27,030 feet (8,240 m).
- Endurance: 27 hours.
- Payload: 150 kg.
- Weapons Load: 55 kg.
- Libya (Operated by Turkish backed GNA).